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Head and Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) in the Military

Overview of Military Head Injuries

Head injuries, particularly Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), are a significant concern for military personnel due to the nature of their duties and the environments in which they serve. TBIs in the military are often the result of explosive blasts, falls, vehicle accidents, and direct combat injuries. The impact of these injuries can range from mild concussions to severe brain damage, affecting the individual’s physical, cognitive, and emotional well-being.


Causes of Military Head Injuries

  • Explosive Blasts: The primary cause of TBIs in military personnel. The shockwaves from explosions can cause significant brain damage without external signs of injury.

  • Falls: Common during training exercises or combat scenarios.

  • Vehicle Accidents: Including crashes involving military vehicles.

  • Combat Injuries: Direct blows to the head from shrapnel, bullets, or other projectiles.

Symptoms of TBI

  • Physical Symptoms: Headaches, dizziness, nausea, balance problems, fatigue, sensitivity to light/noise.

  • Cognitive Symptoms: Memory problems, difficulty concentrating, confusion, difficulty thinking clearly.

  • Emotional/Behavioral Symptoms: Irritability, depression, anxiety, mood swings, agitation.

VA Rating Schedule for TBI

The VA rates TBI under 38 CFR § 4.124a, Diagnostic Code 8045. Ratings are based on the severity of symptoms and the impact on the veteran's daily life. Ratings can range from 0% to 100%, with increments typically at 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70%.

  • 0% Rating: No cognitive, emotional/behavioral, or physical symptoms that require management.

  • 10% Rating: Mild symptoms that do not interfere significantly with daily activities.

  • 30% Rating: Moderate symptoms that cause occasional functional impairment.

  • 50% Rating: Severe symptoms that result in significant impairment in daily functioning.

  • 70% Rating: Symptoms that substantially interfere with the ability to perform daily activities.

  • 100% Rating: Total impairment, requiring constant supervision and care.

Secondary Conditions Caused by Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)


TBI can lead to various secondary conditions, which may manifest physically, cognitively, and emotionally. Understanding these secondary conditions is crucial for proper diagnosis, treatment, and for ensuring veterans receive appropriate benefits and support.


1. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Description: PTSD is a mental health condition triggered by experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event. In the context of TBI, PTSD can develop due to the traumatic circumstances surrounding the head injury, such as exposure to combat or a severe accident. Veterans with TBI are at a higher risk of developing PTSD due to the intense nature of their experiences.



  • Intrusive memories and flashbacks of the traumatic event

  • Nightmares and severe anxiety

  • Avoidance of situations that trigger memories of the trauma

  • Negative changes in thoughts and mood, including feelings of hopelessness and detachment

  • Hyperarousal symptoms such as being easily startled, feeling tense, and having difficulty sleeping


2. Seizure Disorders

Description: Seizure disorders, or epilepsy, can develop after a TBI due to the disruption of electrical activity in the brain. This is more common in moderate to severe TBIs, but even mild TBIs can lead to seizures in some cases.



  • Convulsions or uncontrollable jerking movements

  • Temporary confusion or a staring spell

  • Loss of consciousness or awareness

  • Psychological symptoms such as fear, anxiety, or déjà vu before a seizure


3. Chronic Headaches

Description: Chronic headaches, often referred to as post-traumatic headaches, are a common secondary condition following a TBI. These headaches can persist long after the initial injury and can significantly impact daily life.



  • Persistent or recurring pain in the head, which can vary in intensity

  • Pain that worsens with physical or mental activity

  • Sensitivity to light and noise

  • Nausea or vomiting associated with headaches


4. Sleep Disorders

Description: Sleep disorders are prevalent among individuals with TBI. These can include insomnia, difficulty staying asleep, and sleep apnea. Sleep disorders can exacerbate other symptoms of TBI, such as cognitive impairment and mood disorders.



  • Difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep

  • Waking up frequently during the night or early in the morning

  • Excessive daytime sleepiness

  • Snoring or choking sounds during sleep (indicative of sleep apnea)

  • Feeling unrefreshed after a night's sleep


5. Vertigo

Description: Vertigo, a sensation of spinning or dizziness, can occur after a TBI due to damage to the vestibular system, which helps control balance. Vertigo can significantly affect a person's ability to perform daily activities and can lead to falls and injuries.



  • A spinning sensation, either of oneself or the surroundings

  • Balance problems and unsteadiness

  • Nausea and vomiting

  • Sweating and abnormal eye movements


6. Depression and Anxiety

Description: Depression and anxiety are common emotional and psychological responses to the changes and challenges posed by TBI. These conditions can be exacerbated by the stress of coping with physical symptoms and changes in cognitive function.


Symptoms of Depression:

  • Persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or worthlessness

  • Loss of interest in activities once enjoyed

  • Changes in appetite and weight

  • Difficulty concentrating and making decisions

  • Fatigue and lack of energy

  • Thoughts of death or suicide


Symptoms of Anxiety:

  • Excessive worry and fear about various aspects of life

  • Restlessness and feeling on edge

  • Rapid heartbeat and breathing

  • Sweating and trembling

  • Difficulty concentrating


The Disability Advocates Advice:

Veterans experiencing secondary conditions due to TBI should take the following steps to ensure proper management and support:

  1. Seek Comprehensive Medical Evaluation: Regular evaluations by healthcare professionals to monitor symptoms and adjust treatment plans as necessary.

  2. Document Symptoms: Keep a detailed record of all symptoms and their impact on daily life. This documentation is crucial for VA claims and appeals.

  3. File a VA Claim: Include all secondary conditions in the VA claim. Provide thorough medical documentation and personal statements detailing the impact of these conditions.

  4. Prepare for C&P Exams: Be ready to discuss all symptoms and how they affect daily activities during the Compensation and Pension exams.

  5. Consider Mental Health Support: Seek support from mental health professionals for PTSD, depression, and anxiety. Therapy and medication can help manage these conditions.

  6. Stay Informed: Keep up to date with VA policies and benefits related to TBI and its secondary conditions. Utilize resources like Veterans Service Officers (VSOs) for assistance.

By understanding and addressing these secondary conditions, veterans can ensure they receive comprehensive care and the benefits they deserve.

What to Expect During a VA Gastrointestinal C&P Exam


What to Expect During a VA Examination for Gastrointestinal Conditions When filing for VA disability benefits for gastrointestinal (GI) conditions, veterans will typically undergo a Compensation and Pension (C&P) examination. This exam is crucial in determining the severity of the condition and its impact on the veteran’s daily life and ability to work. Here's what you can expect during the examination and how to prepare for it:

When a veteran files a claim for disability benefits, the VA may schedule a Compensation & Pension (C&P) exam to evaluate the severity of the veteran’s condition and its connection to military service. It is important to note that it can take between 30 to 60 days for the VA to schedule this exam. However, the VA does not automatically schedule exams for all conditions listed in a veteran’s claim.


For the VA to order an exam, several criteria must be met: the veteran must have a current diagnosis of the condition from a healthcare professional, there must be evidence of an in-service event, injury, or exposure that could have caused or aggravated the condition, and there must be a medical nexus linking the current condition to the in-service event. If these criteria are not clearly met in the initial claim, the VA may not schedule an exam, leading to a potential denial of the claim. Therefore, veterans must ensure their claims are well-documented and include all necessary evidence to justify the need for a VA examination. If an exam is not scheduled, veterans can submit additional evidence or request a re-evaluation to demonstrate that their condition meets the criteria for a C&P exam.


Before the Examination

  1. Review Your Medical Records: Familiarize yourself with your medical history, including all relevant GI condition diagnoses, treatments, and symptoms. Ensure your records are up-to-date and comprehensive.

  2. Prepare Documentation: Bring copies of your medical records, personal statements, and any supporting evidence, such as buddy statements or a nexus letter from your healthcare provider.

  3. List Symptoms: Write down a detailed list of your symptoms, including their frequency, duration, and severity. Note how these symptoms affect your daily activities and quality of life.


During the Examination

Medical History Review: The examiner will start by reviewing your medical history. They will ask questions about your GI condition, including when symptoms first appeared, how they have progressed, and what treatments you have undergone.

  • Be honest and thorough in your responses.

  • Mention any treatments that have not been effective and any side effects you have experienced from medications.

Symptom Discussion: You will be asked to describe your symptoms in detail. This includes:

  • Frequency and severity of symptoms like pain, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, and any bleeding.

  • How do these symptoms affect your daily life? Do you struggle with eating, sleeping, working, or engaging in physical activities?

  • Any triggers or factors that worsen your symptoms, such as certain foods, stress, or physical exertion.

Physical Examination: The examiner will conduct a physical examination to assess your overall health, specifically your digestive system. This may include:

  • Check your abdomen for tenderness, distension, or masses.

  • Listening to bowel sounds with a stethoscope.

  • Assessing any visible signs of your condition, such as weight loss or signs of malnutrition.

Diagnostic Tests: Depending on your symptoms and medical history, the examiner may recommend additional diagnostic tests, such as:

  • Blood tests to check for anemia, liver function, or infections.

  • Imaging tests like X-rays, CT scans, or ultrasounds to view the digestive organs.

  • Endoscopy procedures to look inside the esophagus, stomach, or intestines.

Discussion of Daily Impact: The examiner will ask how your GI condition impacts your daily life and ability to function. This includes:

  • Any dietary restrictions you must follow.

  • How symptoms affect your sleep and energy levels.

  • The impact on your employment, such as missed workdays or inability to perform certain tasks.

  • Any limitations on physical activities or social interactions.

What Happens Once the C&P Exam is Complete

After completing your Compensation and Pension (C&P) exam, the next steps involve a review and decision-making process by the VA to determine your disability rating and benefits. Here's an overview of what you can expect:


Examination Report and Review:

Examiner's Report: The examiner will compile a detailed report based on the findings from your C&P exam. This report includes your medical history, the results of the physical examination, and any diagnostic tests performed. The examiner will also assess your condition, noting the severity, symptoms, and how the condition impacts your daily life and work.

Submission to VA: The completed report is sent to the VA Regional Office handling your claim. This report becomes part of your official VA file and is reviewed along with your other medical records and evidence submitted in support of your claim.

The VA Decision Process:

  • Rating Decision: A VA Rating Veterans Service Representative (RVSR) will review the examiner's report, along with all other evidence in your file, to determine your disability rating. The rating is based on the VA's Schedule for Rating Disabilities, which assigns percentages to various conditions based on their severity and impact on your ability to work and perform daily activities.

  • No Time Frame for Decision: It’s important to understand that there is no set time frame for the VA to make a final decision after all exams are complete. If there’s a delay in the process, it often means the VA is deliberating over something in your case. It's crucial not to count your chickens before they hatch, as the VA can request follow-up exams or medical opinions before making a decision.

  • Deferred Decisions: Sometimes, the VA may defer rendering a decision on certain conditions while it processes your claim. This approach allows the VA to decide on ready portions of your claim without holding up the entire process. Deferred conditions often mean the VA will almost certainly ask for a second opinion or request an additional exam. This can cause frustrations and delays, but it’s essential to be patient as this is out of your and our control.

  • Notification of Decision: The VA will send you a Rating Decision letter once a decision is made. This letter details the outcome of your claim, including the disability rating assigned to each condition, the effective date of the rating, and the amount of monthly compensation you will receive. If your claim is approved, the letter will also explain how and when you will receive your benefits.

  • Possible Outcomes:

  • Approval: If your claim is approved, you will receive monthly disability compensation based on the assigned rating percentage.

  • Denial: If your claim is denied, the letter will explain the reasons for the denial. You have the right to appeal the decision if you disagree with the outcome.

Next Steps and Appeals:

Appeals Process: If you disagree with the VA's decision, you have the option to appeal. The appeal process involves several steps, including submitting a Notice of Disagreement (NOD) and possibly presenting additional evidence or attending a hearing. It’s important to understand the timelines and procedures for filing an appeal.

The VA Denied Your Claim Again, Now What?

If your VA claim has been denied and you find yourself receiving the same denial reasons repeatedly, remember that insanity is doing the same thing over and over, expecting a different outcome. We understand how frustrating and disheartening this process can be, but we are here to help you appeal your denied condition effectively.


Why Most VA Claims Are Denied

Many VA claims are denied due to a lack of sufficient evidence, incorrect filing procedures, or missing the crucial nexus between service and current conditions. The VA requires specific documentation and clear connections between your military service and your medical issues. Without these, your claim may be repeatedly denied.


How We Can Help

Veterans should seek the assistance of an Accredited VA Disability Advocate because we offer expert guidance through the complex VA claims process, ensuring all necessary evidence is properly gathered and submitted. Our trained advocates increase the likelihood of a successful claim by identifying and connecting service-related conditions. Additionally, we provide personalized support and representation, helping veterans secure the benefits they deserve.


Free Consultation

For a free consultation, register here In order for us to conduct your free consultation, you must sign VA Form 21-22a (VA POA) and VA Form 21-0966. Without these forms, we will not be able to gain access to your files for review.


Don't Lose Your Effective Date

If your claim was denied within the last year, you might have time left to file your appeal before the VA closes it. If you miss this window, you will lose your effective date and potential for back pay, and you will have to start over with new and relevant evidence.

Stay Proactive During the Appeal Process

During the appeal process, it's crucial to see your doctor regularly until your case is settled. Talk to our agents, and we will guide you through your appeal options, including:

  • VA Supplemental Form 0995

  • VA Higher-Level Review Form 0996

  • VA Board of Appeals Form 10182


Protecting Your Rights

We keep the VA and Examiners honest by pushing back on bad Compensation & Pension (C&P) Examinations, inaccurate or incomplete reports, and instances where the VA does not follow their own guidelines in M21 and 38 CFR. We make sure your legal right to benefits is protected by applying applicable laws when needed.


Contact Us Today

Don’t navigate this complex process alone. Contact us today to ensure your claim is handled with the care and expertise it deserves.

The VA Disability Advocates Main Office is Located in Las Vegas, NV. We Represent Veterans throughout the United States. 702-992-4883 

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